An anal fissure is a small tear in the skin that lines the anus. An anal fissure may occur when you pass hard or large stools during a bowel movement. An anal fissure typically causes pain and bleeding with bowel movements.

Anal fissures most often affect people in middle age, but fissures also are the most common cause of rectal bleeding in infants. Most anal fissures heal within a few weeks with treatment for constipation, but some fissures may become chronic.

 

Common Causes of Anal Fissures

Anal fissures can be caused by trauma to the anus and anal canal. The cause of the trauma can be one or more of the following:

  • Chronic constipation
  • Straining to have a bowel movement, especially if the stool is large, hard, and/or dry
  • Prolonged diarrhea
  • Anal stretching
  • Insertion of foreign objects into the anus

 

Other causes of anal fissures (other than trauma) include

  • Long standing poor bowel habits
  • Overly tight or spastic anal sphincter muscles (muscles that control the closing of the anus)
  • Scarring in the anorectal area
  • Presence of an underlying medical problem such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, anal cancer, leukemia, infectious diseases (such as tuberculosis) and sexually transmitted diseases (such as syphilis, gonorrhea, Chlamydia, chancroid, HIV) 
  • Decreased blood flow to the anorectal area

 

Symptoms of Anal  Fissures

  • Pain during and even hours after a bowel movement
  • Constipation
  • Blood on the outside surface of the stool
  • Blood on toilet
  • A visible crack or tear in the anus or anal canal
  • Burning and itch that may be painful
  • Discomfort when urinating, frequent urination or inability to urinate
  • Foul-smelling discharge

 

Prevention of Anal  Fissures 

For fissures in adults:

  • Keep the anorectal area dry
  • Wipe the area with soft materials, a moistened cloth, or cotton pad; avoid rough and scented toilet paper
  • Promptly treat all occurrences of constipation and diarrhea
  • Avoid irritating the rectum

 

Treatment For  Anal  Fissures 

Our treatment advises internal medication as well as topical ointment application in the treatment of anal fissures. To avoid further irritation to the damaged tissue, medicines which soften the stools and promote healing of the tissues are utilized. Ointments which are natural anti-bacterial and anti-septic are used for topical application.